What you placed in your sync settings is correct if the repo asks for the configuration line deb http://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/. The most likely explanation why you are getting the error No valid Release file found for ‘binary’ is that the signature in the repo cannot be verified using the signing key you provided. Can you try removing the signing key and then synchronizing? (If you do not provide a key, nothing will be verified and the repo should sync.) If that works, it is up to you if you want to trust a unverified repo, or perhaps you are simply using the wrong signing key?
A word of caution: The fact that binary/ ends in a / for this repo indicates that the repo is using flat repository format. Flat repository syncs work in principle, but the implementation is not very robust/does not work for every repo out there. I am working to make it more robust (draft PR), but that work is currently incomplete.
Removing the signing key does absolutely nothing. The problem is definitely Pulp3 is requiring the components field have something in it. Probably architecture too. I had this issue with a few repos that didn’t need it when migration from pulp2 to 3. I had to put something in there for it to work or it would error out.